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 Canadian Citizenship Test

The federal government compiled these 197 questions as a study guide to help immigrants prepare for the citizenship test.

They ask about Canada's electoral process, its government structure, Confederation, Canada's main historical and geographical features and the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

Candidates are also expected to be prepared to answer more specific questions about their region's economy, geography and history.

Ninety per cent of immigrants pass the test on their first attempt by correctly answering at least 12 of 20 questions in a multiple-choice test.

The guide is available online at Citizenship and Immigration Canada.


Section 1

Questions about Canada

1. Who are the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada?
A- The first people to live in Canada.
2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal Peoples?
A- First Nations, Inuit, Metis.
3. In which parts of Canada did the Aboriginal Peoples first live?
A- Every region of the country.
4. What did the Aboriginal Peoples living in your region depend on for survival?
A- Coastal:Hunting & Fishing;Prairies:Buffalo; Central and Eastern Canada: Hunting & Farming.
5. From whom are the Metis descended?
A- European traders and First Nations women.
6. In what industry did the Metis first work with European settlers?
A- Fur trade.
7. Which group of Aboriginal Peoples make up more than half the population of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?
A- Inuit.
8. Why are the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada working toward self-government?
A- To keep their culture and Language alive and to regain control over decisions that affect their lives.
9. Where did the first European settlers in Canada come from?
A- France
10. Why did the early explorers first come to Atlantic Canada?
A- To fish and trade with Aboriginal people
11. Who are the Acadian people?
A- French settlers.
12. What three industries helped the early settlers build communities in the Atlantic region?
A- Farming, Fishing and shipbuilding.
13. Who were the United Empire Loyalists?
A- People who left the US during and after the American Revolution
14. When did the United Empire Loyalists come to Canada?
A- 1775-83
15. When did settlers from France first establish communities on the St. La
A- Early 1600s.
16. In which type of industry did most early European settlers work?
A- Fur trade.
17. Which trade spread across Canada, making it important to the economy for over 300 years?
A- Fur trade.
18. What form of transportation did Aboriginal Peoples and fur traders use to create trading networks in North America?
A- Canoes on the Great Lakes.
19. How long did the Hudson's Bay Company control the northern lands?
A- 300 years.
20. What important trade did the Hudson's Bay Company control?
A- Fur trade.
21. When did thousands of miners first come to the Yukon?
A- End of the 1800s.
22. What did the government do to make immigration to western Canada much easier?
A- Build a railway
23. Which group of people were important in the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway?
A- Chinese.
24. When was the Canadian Pacific Railway finished?
A- Late 1800s.
25. What did the federal government do to encourage people to settle in the Prairie Provinces during the early 1900s?
A- Offer cheap land.
26. What does Confederation mean?
A- Join together, unite.
27. What is the Canadian Constitution?
A- System of laws and conventions that govern the country.
28. In what year did Canada become a country?
A- 1867.
29. Which document made Confederation legal?
A- British North American Act.
30. Which document first defined the responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments?
A- British North American Act.
31. When did the British North America Act come into effect?
A- July 1, 1867
32. Why is the British North America Act important in Canadian history?
A- It made confederation legal.
33. Which four provinces first formed the Confederation?
A- Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec & Ontario
34. List each province and territory and tell when each one joined the Confederation.
A- 1867: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick; 1870: Manitoba, Northwest Territories; 1871: British Columbia; 1873: Prince Edward Island; 1898: Yukon; 1905: Alberta, Saskatchewan; 1949 Newfoundland; 1999 Nunavut.
35. Which was the last province to join Canada?
A- Newfoundland.
36. When is Canada Day and what does it celebrate?
A- July 1, anniversary of Confederation.
37. Who was the first prime minister of Canada?
A- Sir John A. Macdonald.
38. Why is the Constitution Act of 1982 important in Canadian history?
A- Gave Canada power to change the Constitution without British approval.
39. What part of the Constitution legally protects the basic rights and freedoms of all Canadians?
A- Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
40. When did the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms become part of the Canadian Constitution?
A- 1982.
41. Name two fundamental freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
A- Freedom of religion, thought, belief, opinion and expression.
42. Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
A- Right of life, liberty and security of the person.
43. List four rights Canadian citizens have.
A- Be a candidate in federal, provincial and territorial elections; be educated in either official language; apply for a Canadian passport, vote in federal, provincial and territorial elections; enter and leave Canada freely.
44. List three ways in which you can protect the environment.
A- Throw waste paper or other garbage in designated public garbage containers; recycle and use as many products as possible, such as paper, glass and cans; walk, join a car pool, or use bicycle or public transit whenever possible; get involved with local group to protect our natural and cultural heritage.
45. Who has the right to apply for a Canadian passport?
A- A Canadian citizen.
46. Who has the right to enter and leave Canada at will?
A- A Canadian Citizen.
47. Who has the right to be considered first for a job in the federal government?
A- A Canadian citizen
48. What does equality under the law mean?
A- Ever Canadian has an equal right to protection and services of the police and the courts.
49. What does "mobility rights" mean?
A- The right to live and work anywhere in Canada.
50. Name six responsibilities of citizenship.
A- Vote in elections; help others in the community; care for and protect our heritage and environment; obey Canada's laws; express opinions freely while respecting the rights and freedoms of others; and eliminate discrimination and justice.
51. Give an example of how you can care for Canada's natural heritage.
A- For example you can plant flowers and trees, you can preserve Canada's national and provincial parks.
52. What will you promise when you take the Oath of Citizenship?
A- To be faithful and bear true allegiance to the Queen and faithfully observe the laws of Canada.
53. Explain how a citizenship right can also be seen as a citizenship responsibility -- for example, the right to vote.
A- The right to vote is protected by the Constitution but exercising it is a citizen's responsibility.
54. Give an example of how you can show responsibility by participating in your community.
A- Work with others to solve problems in your community.
55. Which legal document recognizes the cultural diversity of Canadians?
A- Multiculturalism Act.
56. What are the two official languages of Canada?
A- French and English.
57. Which legal documents protect the rights of Canadians with regard to official languages?
A- Official Languages Act.
58. Give an example of where English and French have equal status in Canada.
A- Parliament of Canada, in federal courts and in all federal institutions.
59. Where do most French-speaking Canadians live?
A- Quebec.
60. Which province has the most bilingual Canadians?
A- Quebec.
61. Which province is the only officially bilingual province?
A- New Brunswick..
62. What does the Canadian flag look like?
A- Red Maple leaf on white background between two bars of red.
63. What song is Canada's national anthem?
A- O Canada.
64. Give the first two lines of Canada's national anthem.
A- O Canada! Our home and native land!, True patriot love in all thy sons command.
65. Where does the name "Canada" come from?
A- Huron-Iroquois for village or settlement.
66. Which animal is an official symbol of Canada?
A- Beaver.
67. What is the tower in the centre of the Parliament buildings called?
A- Peace Tower.
68. What unique art form was developed by the First Nations people on the West Coast?
A- Totem poles.
69. Why is the North sometimes called the "Land of the Midnight Sun"?
A- 24 hours of daylight during the summer.
70. An act of Parliament was required to create a new territory in Canada's North. What is the name of the new territory?
A- Nunavut.
71. What is the population of Canada?
A- 30.7 million (July 2000).
72. What three oceans border on Canada?
A- Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic.
73. How many provinces and territories are there in Canada?
A-10 provinces, three territories
74. What is the capital city of Canada?
A- Ottawa
75. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.
A- Newfoundland: St. John's; Prince Edward Island: Charlottetown; New Brunswisk: Fredericton; Nova Scotia: Halifax; Quebec: Quebec City; Ontario: Toronto; Manitoba: Winnipeg; Saskatchewan: Regina; Alberta: Edmonton; British Columbia: Victoria; Nunavut: Iqaluit; Northwest Territories: Yellowknife; Yukon: Whitehorse.
76. Name the five regions of Canada.
A- Atlantic, central, Prairies, West Coast, north.
77. What are the provinces of Central Canada?
A- Ontario and Quebec.
78. What are the provinces of the Atlantic Region?
A- Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
79. What are the Prairie Provinces?
A- Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
80. What are the territories of northern Canada?
A- Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.
81. Name one province that is on the Atlantic coast of Canada.
A- New Foundland, Prince Edward Island or New Brunswick.
82. Name a province on the Pacific coast of Canada.
A- British Columbia.
83. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
A- The North.
84. Where do more than half the people in Canada live?
A- Southern Ontario and Quebec.
85. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?
A- Ontario.
86. What is the Canadian Shield?
A- A rock formation that is millions of years old.
87. Where is the Canadian Shield?
A- Stretches from Labrador and Quebec in an arc around Hudson's bay through parts of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.
88. Where are the Canadian Rockies?
A- Alberta and British Columbia.
89. Where are the Great Lakes?
A- Ontario.
90. What are the names of the Great Lakes?
A- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior.
91. Where is the St. Lawrence Seaway?
A- Between the Atlantic and the Great Lakes.
92. Name two mountain ranges in Canada.
A- Rockies and Laurentians.
93. Which territory shares a border with another country?
A- Yukon
94. Which province is known as the "Land of 100,000 Lakes"?
A- Manitoba.
95. Which provinces are joined to New Brunswick by land?
A- Quebec and Nova Scotia.
96. To which ocean is Newfoundland closest?
A- Atlantic.
97. Which mountain range forms a border between Alberta and British Columbia ?
A- Rocky Mountains.
98. Which two provinces are closest to Prince Edward Island?
A- New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
99. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
A- Prince Edward Island.
100. Where are the Parliament buildings located?
A- Ottawa.
101. Which country borders Canada on the south?
A- United States.
102. What are the three main types of industries in Canada?
A- Natural Resources, Manufacturing, services.
103. In what sorts of jobs do most Canadians work?
A- Service and manufacturing.
104. What country is Canada's largest trading partner?
A- United States.
105. Why are the Great Lakes important to Canada?
A- Transportation of goods.
106. Why is the St. Lawrence Seaway important to Canada?
A- Links central Canada to the Atlantic Ocean and ships from around the world.
107. Why is the Canadian Shield important to Canada's economy?
A- One of the world's leading producers of minerals.
108. List four important minerals found in the Canadian Shield.
A- Gold, Silver, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Iron ore.
109. Which province is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world?
A- Saskatchewan.
110. Which region is known as the industrial and manufacturing heartland of Canada?
A- Central Canada.
111. Which region of Canada is known for both its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources?
A- Prairies.
112. Which two provinces produce more than three-quarters of Canadian manufactured goods?
A- Ontario and Quebec.
113. Which province is the biggest producer of metals in Canada?
A- Ontario.
114. Which province is Canada's main producer of pulp and paper?
A- Quebec.
115. Which province has the largest dairy farming industry in Canada?
A- Quebec.
116. Which province has the most valuable forest industry in Canada?
A- British Columbia.
117. Which province is Canada's major producer of oil and gas?
A- Alberta.
118. Which province is Canada's leading wheat producer?
A- Saskatchewan.
119. Which province is Canada's largest producer of hydroelectricity?
A- Quebec.
120. Which two fuels provide about one-half of all the energy used in Canada?
A- Oil and Natural Gas.
121. Which products from southern Ontario are among Canada's key exports?
A- Cars, Auto parts, and transportation equipment.
122. Name three minerals still being mined in the territories today.
A- Gold, Lead and Zinc.
123. Which city provides important shipping and air links between Canada and other countries across the Pacific Ocean?
A- Vancouver.
124. What products are produced in the Niagara Peninsula?
A- Fruit crops.
125. More than half of Canada's aeronautics and space industries are located in which province?
A- Quebec.
126. For what is the Okanagan Valley famous?
A- Fruit Orchards.
127. What fish is a valuable industry on the West Coast?
A- Salmon.
128. Who is Canada's Head of State?
A- Queen Elizabeth.
129. Who is the Queen's representative in Canada?
A- Governor General.
130. What is the name of the Governor General?
A- Michaelle Jean.
131. What do you call the Queen's representative in the provinces and territories?
A- Lieutenant-Governor.
132. What is Canada's system of government called?
A- Parliamentary democracy.
133. What are the three parts of Parliament?
A- The Queen, the House of Commons and the Senate.
134. What are the three levels of government in Canada?
A- Federal, Provincial and Municipal.
135. Explain how the three levels of government are different.
A- The federal government takes major responsibility for matters that affect all of Canada. Provincial and territorial governments look after such matters as education, healthcare and highways. They share responsibilities with the federal government in some areas. The municipal (or local) governments of each city or community are responsible for matters such as policing, fire fighting, snow removal and recycling programs.
136. Name two levels of government and explain how they are different.
A- Federal: national defense, foreign policy and citizenship; Provincial: education, health care and highways; Municipal: fire protection, snow removal, recycling.
137. Name two responsibilities for each level of government.
A- Federal: national defense, foreign policy and citizenship; Provincial: education, health care and highways; Municipal: fire protection, snow removal, recycling.
138. What do you call a law before it is passed?
A- A bill.
139. How does a bill become a law?
A- Approved by majorities in the House of Commons and Senate.
140. What is the final step before a bill becomes a law?
A- Governor General gives final approval.
141. What do the initials MP stand for in Canadian politics?
A- Member of Parliament.
142. How are members of Parliament chosen?
A- Federal election.
143. Who do members of Parliament represent?
A- Everyone who lives in their electoral district.
144. What does a Member of Parliament do?
A- Represent your ideas when new laws are being proposed; ask questions about the government on your behalf; help you if you need information from the government or if you have any problems with the government.
145. What is an "electoral district"?
A- A geographical area represented by a member of the House of Commons.
146. How many electoral districts are there in Canada?
A- 301.
147. In what electoral district do you live?
A- Edmonton-Spruce Grove, Edmonton-Sherwood Park, Edmonton East, Edmonton Centre, Edmonton-Strathcona, Edmonton-Millwoods-Beaumont, Edmonton-Leduc, Edmonton-St.Albert.
148. What four requirements must you meet in order to vote in a federal election?
A- Be more than 18 years old; be a Canadian Citizen; be on the list of electors; have lived outside Canada for less than five years.
149. What is a Notice of Confirmation of Registration?
A- It confirms your name is on the voters list and tells you where and when to vote.
150. What is a polling station?
A- The place where you receive and mark your ballot.
151. What is a ballot?
A- The document on which you indicate your preference for a candidate.
152. What is written on an election ballot?
A- The names of the candidates in alphabetical order.
153. What do you mark on a federal election ballot?
A- An 'X' in the circle beside the name of your chosen candidate.
154. What does voting by secret ballot mean?
A- No one can watch you vote or look at your marked ballot.
155. Who has the right to vote in federal elections?
A- Canadian citizen aged 18 or older.
156. Who has the right to run as a candidate in federal elections?
A- Canadian citizen aged 18 or over.
157. Who do Canadians vote for in a federal election?
A- Members of parliament.
158. How is the government formed after an election?
A- The party with the most elected representatives becomes the party in power.
159. How is the prime minister chosen?
A- The leader of party in power becomes the prime minister.
160. When does an election have to be held according to the Constitution?
A- Every five years.
161. What do political parties do?
A- Decide on the party platform; choose the party leader; choose the party's candidates; and campaign for party candidates in elections.
162. What does "party platform" mean?
A- The plan for what the party would be elected.
163. Name all the federal political parties represented in the House of Commons and their leaders.
A- Conservative: Stephen Harper; Liberals: Paul Martin; Bloc Quebecois: Gilles Duceppe; New Democrats: Jack Layton.
164. Which federal political party is in power?
A- Conservatives.
165. To which party does your member of Parliament belong?
A- Rona Ambrose, Edmonton-Spruce Grove; Ken Epp, Edmonton-Sherwood Park; Peter Goldring, Edmonton East; Laurie Hawn, Edmonton Centre; Rahim Jaffer, Edmonton-Strathcona; Mike Lake, Edmonton-Millwoods-Beaumont; James Rajotte, Edmonton-Leduc; John Williams, Edmonton-St.Albert.
166. What does it mean for a political party to "be in power"?
A- The party that elected the greatest number of representatives.
167. What are the parties that are not in power called?
A- The opposition.
168. Which party becomes the Official Opposition?
A- The party with the second largest number of representatives.
169. What is the role of the Opposition parties?
A- To oppose or try to improve government proposals.
170. Which party is the Official Opposition at the federal level?
A- The Librals.
171. What is a political candidate?
A- Someone who is running for office.
172. What do you call a candidate who does not belong to a political party?
A- An independent
173. What is a cabinet minister?
A- An MP chosen by the prime minister to run a federal government department.
174. How are senators chosen?
A- They are chosen by the prime minister and appointed by the governor general.
175. How can a party in power be defeated in Parliament?
A- If a majority of the MPs vote against a major government decision.
176. What is the name of the prime minister of Canada?
A- Stephen Harper
177. What is the name of your Member of Parliament?
A- See answer 165
178. How can you contact your Member of Parliament?
A- House of Commons, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0A6
179. Who do provincial members of the legislative or national assemblies represent?
A- Citizens of particular province or territory.
180. What level of government passes "bylaws"?
A- Municipal.



Section 2


Questions about Edmonton

181. Who is your city councilor, alderperson, reeve or regional councilor?
A- Ward 1:Karen leibovici, Linda Sloan; Ward 2: Kim Krushell, Ron Hayter; Ward 3: Ed Gibbons, Janice Melnychuk; Ward 4: Jane Batty, Michael Phair; Ward 5: Bryan Anderson, Mike Nickel; Ward 6: Terry Cavanagh, Dave Thiele.
182. What is the name of your mayor?
A- Stephen Mandel
183. What is the name of your provincial representative (member of the Legislative Assembly, member of the provincial Parliament, member of the National Assembly or member of the House of Assembly)?
A- Ray Martin, Baverly-Clareview; David Eggen, Calder; Thomas Lukaszuk, Castle Downs; Laurie Blakeman, Centre; Bill Bonko, Decore; Bharat Agnihotri, Ellerslie; Bruce Miller, Glenora; Hugh MacDonald, Gold Bar; Brian Mason, Highlands-Norwood; Dan Backs, Manning; Mo Elsalhy, McClung; Maurice Tougas, Meadowlark; Gene Zwozdesky, Mill Creek; Weslyn Mather, Mill Woods;Kevin Taft, Riverview; Richard Miller, Rutherford; Raj Pannu, Strathcona; Dave Hancock, Whitemud. 
184. What is the name of the premier of your province?
A- Ralph Klein
185. Which political party is in power in your province or territory?
A- Progressive Conservative
186. What is the name of the leader of the Opposition in your province?
A-  Kevin Taft (Liberal).
187. What is the name of your lieutenant-governor or commissioner?
A- Norman L. Kwong